Syndactyly is a congenital malformation of the fingers or toes, consisting of their partial or complete fusion. With this anomaly, a fusion of both normally developed and deformed fingers can be observed. Pathology occurs in isolation, or in combination with other diseases of the extremities: polyphalangia and polydactyly, finger hypoplasia, brachydactyly, ectrodactyly, cleft hand, radial or ulnar clubhand, brachioradial synostosis, and others. More than half of children who suffer from some form of syndactyly have a concomitant congenital pathology of the musculoskeletal system (for example, pseudarthrosis, pathological varus or valgus position of the feet, clubfoot, etc.). This anomaly is not only a cosmetic defect, in some cases, for example, with a complex form of fusion (when bone tissue is fused), the functionality of the hand may be impaired.
Reasons of development
The anomaly is formed as a result of incomplete separation of the fingers or toes during intrauterine development at 7-8 weeks of gestation. The most common cause of this is a genetic factor that is transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner. If there were no cases of syndactyly in the family, then the cause of the development of pathology is factors that disrupt the correct development of the child's limb during pregnancy. Such factors can be:
- infectious diseases of the mother;
- taking certain medications while carrying a child;
- parental abuse of alcohol or smoking;
- work of parents in hazardous work;
- exposure to x-ray radiation;
- living in unfavorable environmental conditions, etc.
Symptoms of syndactyly
The main symptom that allows you to recognize the anomaly is the fusion of the fingers. It can be one- or two-sided, complete and partial, soft tissue or bone, with or without deformity of the fingers. If the bony form of syndactyly usually leads to a violation of the functionality of the limb, then the soft tissue pathology is only a cosmetic defect and allows children to perform a fairly wide range of actions. But still, the limitation in performing various actions with the fingers can hinder the harmonious development of the child and complicate the learning process, so you should not leave the defect unattended. And in some cases, a fusion of fingers may be accompanied by other gene or chromosomal syndromes, which entails a delay in mental and physical development.
The only effective method of treating syndactyly is the surgical correction of the pathology. The main task of the surgeons, in this case, is the complete separation of the fingers and providing them with free differentiated movement in the future.
Depending on the form and type of pathology, the operation to eliminate syndactyly can be carried out in several ways:
- dissection of interdigital fusion with subsequent suturing of wounds without resorting to skin plastics;
- splitting with the use of skin grafting with local tissues;
- dissection with plastics with a full-thickness skin flap;
- splitting with combined plastics;
- operation in several stages with muscle, bone, and tendon plastic technique.
After cutting the fused fingers, the skin is sutured, sutures are applied to the inner surface. At the same time, a high cosmetic effect remains, and scars are hardly noticeable in the future.
In the Dobrobut network of medical clinics in Kyiv, operations are performed to treat syndactyly of any level of complexity. Our doctors are some of the best surgeons in Ukraine, which is confirmed by the reviews of our clients. We use only modern equipment, provide an individual approach to each patient, provide quality service, and all this at affordable prices.
You can get more detailed information on the operation: conditions, cost, terms, etc., or make an appointment with a doctor by calling our call center.
- Tracy Jones - Syndactyly. Last updated May 22, 2021.
- Syndactyly - What Is It, What Causes It, Treatment & Surgery. Published online, 2017.
- E Gene Deune - Syndactyly: Practice Essentials, Etiology, Epidemiology. Published online, January 31, 2020.
- Syndactyly | Boston Children's Hospital. Published online, 2020.