Treatment of neurosensory hearing loss in children: cochlear implantation

Treatment of neurosensory hearing loss in children: cochlear implantation

Hearing loss is the persistent diminished hearing that complicates perception of speech and other sounds. Three degrees of hearing loss are distinguished: mild (speech is perceived at a distance of more than four meters), moderate (two to four meters), and severe (common speech is perceived at a distance of less than two meters).

Disability can be assigned to a patient in case of significant diminishing of hearing. The basis for group 3 disability in case of auditory inefficiency is the bilateral diminished hearing of the fourth degree.

Three types of hearing loss are distinguished. The cause of neurosensory or sensorineural hearing loss is a trauma of the sound-perceiving apparatus. Diminished hearing can be a result of microvasculature injuries in the inner ear, auditory nerve pathology, Meniere disease, complications of infectious diseases. Irreversible hearing damage can be developed after the administration of ototoxic medications, for example, antibiotics from the aminoglycoside group, some urinatives. Long exposure of domestic or industrial noise, intoxication of the body (with lead, mercury) can be the cause of chronic sensorineural hearing development.

The reasons for conductive hearing loss are obstacles that arise on the way of conduction and amplification of sound at the levels of outer, middle or inner ear. Symptoms of conductive hearing loss are reduction of sensitivity in the perception of sounds when their distinctiveness remains intact.

Ringing in the ears in case of the professional hear loss often occurs from the first days of work in noisy occupations and becomes obsessive in 15–20 years of the long-term staying under heightened noise conditions.

The same patient can have conductive and neurosensory hearing loss. In such cases we may talk about the mixed form of the disease.

Nootropics and antihistamines are usually prescribed. If the non-surgical therapy does not provide the desired effect, a surgery for hearing restoration or hearing aid implantation are recommended. Acoustic aids in case of hearing loss help patients in everyday life. Devices with more complicated design are required for correction of mixed disorder type. Read more on hearing aid on our website.

The main rule for the treatment of acute hearing loss of one ear is as follows: the sooner the cause is determined and the relevant pharmaceutical therapy is prescribed, the higher are the chances to preserve hearing. Acute neurosensory hearing loss is correctable with medications.

Pharmacological therapy is chosen individually for every child depending on the causes of neurosensory hearing loss. Physiotherapeutic techniques are also appropriate for the treatment of neurosensory hearing loss in children. Magnetotherapy and laser therapy are usually prescribed. Reflexotherapy is performed according to the individual program.

The goal of the comprehensive hearing loss treatment is hearing improvement, development of speech and learning skills of little patients. Children with neurosensory hearing loss have indications for sessions with a special-needs expert and speech therapist. If a child has the fourth degree of hearing loss and has undergone a cochlear implantation surgery, but his/her speaking skills are not age-appropriate, and he/she has difficulties with learning material embracing, stimulation current reflexotherapy may be prescribed.

Surgeries in case of conductive hearing loss give the possibility of complete restoration or significant improvement of hearing. In some cases hearing restoration is possible even in case of complete deafness. The type of surgery depends on the nature of sound-conducting system impairment.

In case of hearing loss, unique high-tech surgeries help to restore hearing for the patients with neurosensory hearing loss. Cochlear implant is an electronic device consisting of two sections. The system of electrodes is inserted in the inner ear during the cochlear implantation; the electrodes provide sound perception using the electric stimulation of the undestroyed auditory nerve fibers. It means that the device functions bypassing the damaged hair cells. The surgery gives people with severe hearing loss the possibility to hear speech and other sounds.

Article author: Olha Ivanova-Yur

Publication date: 03.12.2020

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Doctors who advise on this issue:
15experience (y.)
Kolupaieva Mariia Hennadiivna
Otolaryngologist; Pediatric otolaryngologist
6experience (y.)
Shchyrina Kateryna Vasylivna
Pediatric otolaryngologist; Otolaryngologist
26experience (y.)
Shuklina Yuliia Volodymyrivna
Otolaryngologist; Pediatric otolaryngologist
12experience (y.)
Chekerda Viktoriia Olehivna
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