The most reliable and effective way to restore dentition is tooth implantation - a technique of prosthetics using titanium implants. Artificial roots with ceramic crowns are no different from natural teeth, can withstand chewing loads, and serve for decades. The method of installing the implant on the tooth has become popular due to the minimum recovery time, low cost, least trauma, and effective results.
When teeth are implanted in Kyiv, a titanium implant is implanted in the jawbone. A temporary, or after absolute osseointegration, the permanent crown is attached to the implant. There are several types of procedures, each with its benefits and scope. The technology allows restoring both single teeth and all numbers at full adentia. Implantation solves the aesthetic problem as well as preventing jaw health problems. The price of the implant depends on the amount of work and the material used.
Indications for dental implants
- Partial or complete loss of the tooth, when further manipulations to restore it is ineffective.
- End unilateral and bilateral defects (absence of the last masticatory teeth). In this case, implantation is almost always the only method to restore the functions of the dentition.
- Missing several teeth in a row (two, three, or more).
- Complete absence of teeth (adentia)
- Allergy or hypersensitivity of the patient to the components of the removable prosthesis.
Contraindications to the procedure of dental implants are:
- Severe chronic diseases of the body (tuberculosis, rheumatic disease, diabetes, pathology of the cardiovascular and nervous systems, etc.).
- Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs (lymphogranulomatosis, leukemia, anemia, problems with blood clotting).
- Diseases of the skeletal system that reduce its regenerative capacity.
- Malignant neoplasms.
- Allergy to anesthetic components.
The implantation operation can be postponed until the cause is eliminated if:
- no remediation of the oral cavity;
- inflammatory processes (stomatitis, gingivitis, etc.) take place in the oral cavity;
- there are diseases of the temporomandibular joint;
- alveolar processes are too worn out, and their previous plasticity is required;
The operation is also postponed in case of pregnancy and lactation.
What is a dental implant?
A dental implant is a full-fledged artificial tooth consisting of three parts:
- Pin - a prosthesis of a tooth root made of a light strong alloy, which is screwed into the bone tissue of the jaw. This is the foundation of the whole structure, so its stabilization in the tissues is extremely important.
- Abutment - a connecting layer between the pin and the crown, made of ceramic or strong metal alloys;
- The crown is a prosthesis of the upper part of the tooth that performs a chewing function. It is made according to the individual parameters of the shape and color of the patient's teeth.
The main advantage of this three-component design is that dentists have the opportunity, if necessary, to replace the crown and abutment without removing the pin.
What material are dental implants made of?
Almost all modern dental implants are made of titanium. This unique material is ideal for making artificial tooth roots, as it is not perceived by the human body as something foreign and is not subject to the destructive effects of the biological environment. But most importantly - it can grow securely with the jawbone. These unique properties of titanium solved the problem of rejection and made implantation шт a reliable and durable technique. However, in very rare cases, when a patient is allergic to titanium dental implants, zirconium dioxide is used as a basis for the manufacture of dentures. The price of installing a tooth implant in Kyiv depends on the amount of work and the material used.
Types of implants
In modern dentistry, 4 types of dental implants are more often used, for each of which a treatment tactic is developed:
1. Endosteal. Root implants of different types (can be helical, blade, cylinder). The endosteal or intraosseous technique of implant placement takes from 5-6 months. The main stage - surgical - is divided into 2 stages:
- Installing the pin. It is treated with a special material - hydroxyapatite (a biocompatible inorganic mineral used to prevent complications). After implantation of the pin, sutures are applied to the gums. The long period of implantation is due to the need for absolute healing of gum tissue before the final step.
- Installation of the holder on which the prosthetic design will be put.
2. Periosteal. This is a complex technique of dental implantation, which is performed exclusively on the lower jaw. Its essence is to install on the lower jaw bone a metal bracket with pins long enough for the bone to pass through.
3. Subperiosteal implants. They look like a strong metal frame with prepared holders for the prosthetic structure of the artificial tooth. Are established under gums over a bone. This technology of dental implant placement is used in case of insufficient volume of bone tissues and the impossibility of plastic surgery.
4. Mini-implants. Externally, mini-implants look like small screws. The process of their installation does not take much time and is minimally invasive. Osteoplasty does not require prior implantation of mini-implants.
How to prepare for the dental implant procedure?
Careful preparation before dental implants is the key to the effectiveness and safety of the procedure. Implantation of an artificial root into bone tissue is a surgical procedure. Although the list of contraindications to it today is small due to the use of modern technologies and materials, diagnostic tests are mandatory before implantation.
The preparatory stage usually includes the following activities:
- laboratory diagnostics: general blood test, examination for glucose, hepatitis, HIV, and RW;
- rehabilitation of the oral cavity: the doctor treats the signs of inflammation, fills the root canals, removes non-viable teeth, eliminates carious cavities;
- conducting orthopantomogram (survey image);
- consultation of narrow-profile specialists in the presence of any health problems (endocrinologist, therapist, ENT specialist, cardiologist).
The specialist may prescribe additional examination methods based on each clinical case. Clarify all the details of preparation for dental implants should be at the initial consultation with a dentist.
Types of dental implants
1. Classical dental implants have been widely used in dental practice since the 1980s. This is a reliable and proven method of treatment for years. The second name of classical implantation is two-stage, as it is performed in two stages. At the first stage, implants are implanted in the bone tissue and closed with a special cap. In the second stage, after complete engraftment of the implants, they open (the gums move away), the abutment and the denture are installed on top.
However, this technique is demanding on the condition of bone tissue, so if the bone is atrophied, its size does not allow for safe and high-quality implantation, augmentation operations are performed - osteoplasty or sinus lifting. Hence the main and significant disadvantage - the duration of treatment increases and takes an average of 7 to 12 months:
- from 4 to 6 months will go to osteoplasty (increasing the volume of bone tissue);
- from 3 to 6 months for osseointegration of artificial roots after their installation;
- up to 14 days for prosthetics (production and fixation of the crown).
The duration of the procedure is fully repaid by the naturalness of the smile and the full restoration of normal masticatory function.
2. One-step implantation of teeth (also called immediate, instantaneous implantation) is a method in which the implant is applied to the gums immediately after tooth extraction, in one go. Immediately on the implant is fixed a temporary prosthesis, which after the rooting of the artificial root (a few months) is replaced by a permanent crown. Carrying out such implantation is possible in the absence of atrophy of bone tissue and a satisfactory condition of the oral cavity (teeth and gums are healthy).
The technique has its advantages:
- the operation is performed without suturing and incisions;
- the number of doctor's visits is reduced;
- fast aesthetic effect;
- the risk of complications is minimized;
- the healing process is quick and easy;
- low cost compared to other implantation techniques.
One-step implantation of teeth can be performed using one of three methods:
- Implantation without immediate loading of the implant. After implantation of the titanium root, the gums are sutured, and only after the wound is completely healed is prosthetics a temporary structure.
- Implantation with the installation of a gum shaper. A shaper is immediately attached to the implant, which helps to fix the soft tissues in the right position and prevent the exposure of the gaps between the teeth.
- Implantation with immediate loading of the temporary crown. A procedure that preserves the aesthetics of the smile, which is especially important in the frontal area.
One-step implantation is performed under local anesthesia. The procedure lasts about 1 hour (to replace 1 tooth) and more (to replace several teeth). Recovery after surgery lasts for 3-4 months.
Modern dentistry also offers improved methods of implant placement. One of these is the use of a laser instead of a scalpel. The technique itself remains unchanged, the only difference in the method of incision is clear. To do this, use special equipment - a laser beam with a length of about 800 nanometers and an average power of 0.6 watts, sent to the selected location, where the incision is formed to the desired length and depth. The laser also helps to prepare the bed for the structure. Under its influence, there is an evaporation of moisture and blockage of the injured edges of a mucous membrane. Thus the expert can control the work of the device, applying both pulsed, and constant radiation, proceeding from a situation. The method has its advantages:
- reduced trauma due to high accuracy of the laser;
- minimal blood loss, as the laser simultaneously coagulates damaged, as a result of the incision, blood vessels;
- antibacterial action of the laser beam - minimizes the risk of external infection;
- faster regeneration of all tissues;
- the operation time is reduced.
Each clinical case is individual. Before starting treatment, the dentist conducts a comprehensive diagnosis and identifies indications and contraindications to implant treatment in general and specific techniques in particular.
Implantation in the complete absence of teeth (adentia). Very popular methods of implantation in adentia are "All-on-4" and "All-on-6".
All-on-4 implantation. This variant of implantation involves the placement of 4 dental implants with subsequent fixation of a fixed prosthesis of 12 teeth: the first 2 "roots" are installed vertically, and the remaining 2 - from the side corners in the back of the jaw. Also, this technique is ideal for restoring the upper jaw in cases where the bone has a loose or too soft structure. Regardless of whether the implantation of the upper jaw in the complete absence of teeth or replace the dental units of the lower row, the technique is the most budget and fast, because it does not require additional surgery and allows you to restore teeth in 1-2 weeks.
All-on-6 or "all-on-six" technology is an improved version of the All-on-4 concept, in which six implants are used instead of four to fix a fixed prosthesis:
- two in the frontal area in the area of the front incisors;
- four in the distal part at the site of the masticatory teeth (two vertically and two at an angle, the angle of which is selected by the doctor taking into account the quality of the bone).
The use of two additional titanium rods allows you to more securely fasten the orthopedic structure and ensure proper distribution of the load on the implants, which reduces the risk of rejection. This method is used even in cases where bone tissue is severely atrophied.
Specialists of Dobrobut dental clinics in Kyiv install implants of any level of complexity. We use only modern methods of implantation, we use orthopedic constructions of the leading world manufacturers. In addition, in our arsenal:
- the latest diagnostic and medical equipment;
- individual approach to each patient;
- quality service of the European level;
- affordable prices and cost of services in comparison with the prices across Ukraine.
The harmonious combination of professionalism of our dentists, advanced technologies, the best materials of high quality - the key to successful treatment and a beautiful smile as a result.
To make an appointment at Dobrobut dental clinics - call the numbers of our call center at any time of the day!
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- Dental Implant Procedure: A Step by Step Guide. Published online, January 22, 2020