Blood stroke: clinical presentations, etiology of development, emergency care

Blood stroke: clinical presentations, etiology of development, emergency care

Ignoring the recommendations of a cardiologist is the most common cause of blood pressure spiking. It is enough just to skip taking the prescribed pills a few times, and the pressure can rise to very high numbers. At this moment, as a rule, an acute cerebrovascular accident (ACVA), better known as a stroke, occurs.

There are two main ACVA types: ischemic and hemorrhagic. The former occurs against the background of ultra-high blood pressure elevation. At the same time, the blood supply through the narrowed arteries to different parts of the brain is insufficient, because of which the nerve cells begin to die gradually. It is even worse when, in addition to narrowing, a clot or an atherosclerotic plaque blocks the artery. In this case, the stroke occurs immediately and develops much faster.

The situation with hemorrhagic stroke is much worse. It develops when one of the blood vessels ruptures in the brain against the background of an elevation in blood pressure. The blood from this vessel enters the brain tissue, and this process can be quite long. There is a compression of the brain structures in a large area (sometimes there is so much blood that it squeezes the entire brain). A large amount of injuries results in high severity of the disease and a poor prognosis.

Many factors can lead to the development of cerebral circulation disorders. The presence of any individual disorder does not mean that there will certainly be a stroke, but its risk increases. The main factors:

Age, sex and weight of a patient plays an important role. Refusal of a healthy lifestyle also increases the risk of ACVA, as smoking, alcohol abuse, insufficient physical activity result in a deterioration in the state of blood vessels.

Symptoms of a stroke are quite diverse and depend on the structures affected. Its signs often include impaired sensitivity and motor deficits. Usually, asymmetry of the face is clearly visible with drooping of one corner of the mouth and eyelids, as well as inability to move an arm and / or a leg on one side of the body. Speech becomes incomprehensible and sounds as if the patient had a mouth full of food.

The extreme degree of neurological impairment in case of a stroke is coma. If it is an ischemic stroke, it may not develop at all, but in case of a hemorrhagic disorder, it occurs quite often. Coma is a sign of extreme severity of a stroke and poor prognosis.

Sometimes a stroke has no pronounced signs, and this leads to the fact that a person does not go to a specialist, wasting precious time. For example, heterotropia may occur only in one eye, as well as the loss of a part of the visual field or numbness of the skin of one of the limbs without movement disorders.

There is a concept of “therapeutic window”. It means provision of specialty care within the first 3 hours after the first signs of the disease appear. In this case, a patient has a higher chance for full recovery or at least for minimal consequences of the disease. You should call an ambulance in case of a stroke.

While an ambulance is on the way, prepare the documents necessary for the admission to hospital and find people who will help to transfer the patient from home to an ambulance car.

Our doctors strongly discourages the use of the methods of dealing with a stroke by piercing fingers with needles and other nonsense, widely advertised on the Internet. This will not save a person from the disease, but you will waste precious minutes or even hours checking the results.

Stroke is a common cause of disability in all countries of the world. Only 8 % of people recover completely. Other have some consequences, sometimes severe ones. Quitting bad habits, careful adherence to all medical prescriptions for hypertension, diabetes and other diseases will reduce the risk of stroke to a minimum.

Article author - Volodymyr Monastyrskyy, M.D.

Publication date: 15.12.2020

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