Colorectal cancer is a collective term for malignant neoplasms of epithelial origin of the colon and rectum. It occurs with the same frequency in both women and men, regardless of race or nationality.
The problem of colorectal cancer is very relevant in the modern world. According to statistics, more than 600 thousand new cases of the disease are registered every year. The mortality rate from colorectal cancer ranks third in Ukraine, after lung and breast cancer, but nevertheless, modern opportunities for early diagnosis give reason to consider this type of cancer 95% preventable.
Causes of occurrence
The reliable cause of CRC, like any other oncological disease, is currently unknown to science. Every day, a lot of cancer cells appear in our body, which the immune system recognizes and “destroys” them in time. At some stage of this process, a malfunction occurs, and the cancer cell ceases to be perceived by the immune system as foreign, it acquires the ability to grow uncontrollably. Most scientists are inclined to believe that CRC is a polyetiological disease that occurs under the influence of external and internal factors, the main of which are:
- Hereditary predisposition - in the family history there were cases of colorectal cancer, or syndromes with a clearly expressed genetic nature were identified: hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome), familial adenomatous polyposis, Turco's syndrome.
- The presence of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis).
- Intestinal polyposis.
- A previous case of cancer of the colon or rectum, stomach, or female genital organs was transferred by the patient.
- Age over 50.
Trigger factors for the development of CRC are also:
- violation of the diet (the predominance of animal fats in the diet, and a low level of vegetable fiber);
- alcohol abuse and smoking;
- overweight and obesity.
Colorectal screening is recommended annually for all people over 45 years of age. In Ukraine, an occult blood test is used as a screening examination method - based on this analysis, blood in the feces can be detected. If you find yourself in a high-risk group, you should immediately contact a specialist for advice.
In Kyiv, you can be screened for colorectal cancer in the Dobrobut network of medical clinics. We use the most modern methods and diagnostic equipment, as well as offer the services of qualified doctors with many years of experience, all at affordable prices.
The insidiousness of bowel cancer is that it can be asymptomatic for several years. Sometimes it can take 5 to 15 years before the first signs and alarms appear. Symptoms may differ depending on the localization of the tumor process and the stage of its progression. However, it is possible to single out general clinical signs, upon detection of which it is necessary to seek help from specialists as soon as possible. These include:
- changes like the stool (constipation, diarrhea and their combinations, changes in the frequency, color of bowel movements);
- the presence of rectal bleeding or blood in the stool;
- frequent or regular pain, abdominal cramps, flatulence;
- unexplained tiredness or weakness decreased performance;
- pain during bowel movements;
- nausea, loss of appetite;
- sharp weight loss;
- symptom complex of anemia (dizziness, pallor of the skin, and mucous membranes).
If the neoplasm is located in the rectum, there may be a feeling of incomplete emptying of the intestine and a foreign body.
Symptoms are not specific and may indicate another disease, but if you notice them, you should undergo a comprehensive examination and exclude CRC.
A colonoscopy helps to diagnose colorectal cancer at different stages of the development of the pathological process. It is carried out using a special wholesale medical device - a colonoscope, which is equipped with optics, an instrumental channel. In some cases, sigmoidoscopy is also performed - visual diagnostics of the rectal mucosa, virtual colonography - modeling the contour of the intestinal wall using CT.
Colon cancer treatment is complex; teams of doctors usually work on the development of general tactics. Elimination of the neoplasm is carried out surgically. Depending on the localization of the pathological process, the general condition of the patient, surgical intervention can be performed laparotomically, that is, a standard operation, or more modern and less traumatic - laparoscopic technique. During laparoscopic surgery, visual control devices are inserted into the abdominal cavity, while there are practically no incisions, and the operation time is reduced. Sometimes colon cancer treatment involves the placement of a colostomy, a surgical opening of the intestine with the abdomen, to remove processed food from the body. However, more often than not, colostomy placement is temporary, and thanks to modern methods of radiation therapy and chemotherapy, patients do not need a permanent colostomy.
Also, modern treatment for colon and rectal cancer includes targeted, immunotherapy. These techniques have proven to be quite effective treatments for colorectal cancer.
The specialists of the Dobrobut clinics are engaged in the treatment of colon and rectal cancer in Kyiv. The price of treatment may vary depending on the complexity of each individual case, but the cost of our services is quite loyal. You can make an appointment with a specialist by calling our call center or on the website.
- American Cancer Society Guideline for Colorectal Cancer Screening. Published online, 2020.
- ESMO CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES: GASTROINTESTINAL CANCERS. Published online, 2020.
- Colorectal Cancer: Screening. Published online, May 18, 2021.
- John H. Scholefield FRCS, ChM,, Cathy Eng MD, FACP - Colorectal Cancer: Diagnosis and Clinical Management,2017
- Jindong Chen – «Colorectal cancer Diagnosis, Screening and Management», 2018
- Susan Gearhart, Nita Ahuja «Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer Series: Colorectal Cancer», 2010