Glaucoma is an ophthalmic disease associated with increased intraocular pressure. This condition provokes a narrowing of the limits of the visual field, atrophy of the optic nerve, which progresses and results in blindness. Most often, the disease develops in patients over 40 years of age. With early detection and qualified assistance, the pathology is treatable. Knowing the signs of angle-closure / open-angle glaucoma, you can prevent irreversible processes and avoid the loss of vision.
Hereditary factor is of great importance. According to statistics, if the parents were diagnosed with glaucoma, then the disease with a probability of 30–50 % can be diagnosed in children. If this condition is present for a long time, the atrophy of the optic nerve cannot be avoided.
The above reasons are related to primary glaucoma, which is the disease that develops independently. Ophthalmologists consider pancreatic diabetes, impaired circulation in the vessels of the eye, etc. as the causes of the secondary glaucoma.
Glaucoma can often begin showing no symptoms. A patient only notes a cloudy vision sometimes in the morning, heaviness in the temple or the eye.
Diagnostics of the primary glaucoma is possible only during preventive check-ups, because, as a rule, the disease has no pronounced symptoms. It is extremely important for a person to independently monitor his/her health and visual acuity. In case of visual deterioration, it is necessary to contact an ophthalmologist and undergo a special examination, consisting of a study of the intraocular pressure, a study of visual fields and optical coherence tomography.
Abrupt elevation of the intraocular pressure is also possible. If this is the case, a patient complains of a wave of nausea (not associated with eating), redness and severe pain in the affected eye. This is an acute attack of glaucoma, and the person has a risk of rapid loss of vision and the onset of blindness. Only a doctor can preserve the functionality of the vision organ.
An ophthalmologist makes a decision on the treatment of glaucoma at various stages. First, a patient undergoes an examination, the level of intraocular pressure, the need of additional ophthalmological examinations and general health state are determined. If the qualified medical care seeking was carried out in a timely manner, then most often a pharmacological therapy will be prescribed. Eye drops from glaucoma have the same effect on the vision organs: they reduce the intraocular pressure.
In most cases, pharmacological therapy has a positive effect: the intraocular pressure is normalized and stabilized, the process of optic nerve degeneration stops.
Such a treatment is carried out under the supervision of ophthalmologists. If there is no stabilization of the intraocular pressure, then a surgical intervention will be prescribed.
The treatment of secondary glaucoma, as a rule, is carried out with the therapy for the underlying disease that has caused the eye pathology.
Surgical treatment consists in reducing the intraocular pressure as follows:
creating an additional hole in the drainage system of the eye. Sometimes specialized devices are implanted to control the intraocular pressure.
Treatment of glaucoma with the laser is a new development in ophthalmology. It is less traumatic, the first results are noticeable 1–2 hours after the intervention. However, ophthalmologists warn that laser correction of the intraocular pressure does not guarantee long-term results.
It is possible to diagnose the disease in a timely manner only during medical examinations that should be carried out at least once a year. However, there is a number of recommendations from ophthalmologists that are preventive measures for the development of glaucoma:
To avoid excessive physical and visual loads. Not to lift heavy weights of more than 10 kg (at least constantly and continuously), to be at the computer for a long time and to work with documents without interruption.
To adjust the diet. To limit the use of coffee, strong tea, spices and hot seasonings. It is advisable to include fresh vegetables and fruits, juices in the menu, as this will saturate the body with vitamins and minerals.
Prevention of glaucoma is the timely treatment of diseases that can cause problems with the optic nerve. We are talking about pancreatic diabetes, vascular pathologies, when a patient has to fulfill all the medical prescriptions of a doctor.
Article author: Victoria Ratushnyuk
Publication date: 29.12.2020
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