An open and endovascular aortic prosthesis
An aortic aneurysm is a sac-like enlargement of the aorta, the largest vessel that carries oxygen-enriched blood from the heart to other parts of the body. The aorta is constantly expanding and contracting, pushing blood through the circulatory system. With each heartbeat, the vessel wall in the area of the aneurysm becomes more and more stretched, becomes thin and fragile.
Most often, problems occur in the abdominal aorta - the main vessel through which blood flows to the lower extremities. In the case of stratification and rupture of the aneurysm, life-threatening conditions develop, caused by internal bleeding. Aneurysm rupture ranks 15th in the world in the list of causes of death and 10th in terms of mortality among men over 55 years of age.
Signs of aneurysms
An abdominal aortic aneurysm is often asymptomatic, and therefore it is detected during the diagnosis of other pathologies. If you experience sudden abdominal or back pain, seek immediate medical attention. These are the main symptoms that occur during aortic rupture. The pain is unbearable, accompanied by feelings of fear, panic, shortness of breath. Emergency measures should be taken as soon as possible to avoid painful shock and death from internal hemorrhage.
The causes of an aortic aneurysm can be congenital and acquired. The first includes genetic intrauterine developmental abnormalities; the second is associated with inflammatory or degenerative (non-inflammatory) processes.
In the general list of diseases that lead to the appearance of a vascular defect, the dominant role is played by atherosclerosis, which, in most cases, develops in people with hypertension, poor metabolism, bad habits (smoking, alcohol consumption).
The main methods of diagnosis, based on which determine the tactics of treatment: radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography. Differentiation is performed from tumors in the lungs and mediastinum, abdomen, as well as from lymph node lesions. Based on the results of the examination (in case of confirmation of the aneurysm), the doctor decides on the possibility of an aortic prosthesis.
The method of treatment of the pathology depends on its size, the degree of stratification, the rate of increase, the general health of the patient. Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (less than 4 cm in diameter) rarely rupture, but their condition must be constantly monitored.
Patients undergo an ultrasound examination every six months so that the doctor can get an objective picture of the growth of the aneurysm and the risk of its rupture. Be sure to quit smoking, undergo treatment for hypertension and atherosclerosis.
Large aneurysms (over 4.5 cm in diameter) require surgery, which is performed by two methods: open surgery and endovascular treatment.
Open access operation
Open surgery involves resection of the abdominal aortic aneurysm with subsequent prosthetics. In this case, a prosthesis is used - a synthetic tube made of medical woven material. The surgeon accesses the affected area through an incision in the abdomen. In the normal course of recovery, the patient is discharged from the hospital 4-10 days after surgery.
An alternative to open surgery is aortic arthroplasty with stent fixation. Endovascular surgery is a minimally invasive surgery by the transcutaneous puncture. All manipulations are performed through two small incisions in the groin.
With the help of special surgical instruments, an implant called a stent graft (mesh metal frame with polymer fabric inside) is installed inside the vessel. The prosthesis is attached to the walls of the aorta, and medical tissue isolates the vascular lumen from the connection with the aneurysm cavity. Part of the vessel formed by the protrusion of the wall is cut off from the vascular system, which causes the restoration of blood supply to the heart.
The decision to choose the type of intervention is made by a panel of specialists who take into account the type of aortic aneurysm, its size, anatomical features, comorbidities of the patient, and many other factors.
In the future, the doctor will discuss with you the possible options, and you will jointly choose the most appropriate type of treatment, taking into account the risks, prognosis, cost of services, and other factors.
In our practice we use:
- innovative equipment for diagnosis and treatment;
- the best stent-grafts and artificial vessels from leading foreign manufacturers;
- European treatment and rehabilitation protocols;
- the latest medicines and consumables.
For an emergency call to the team of doctors - call: 5288. If you are making an appointment for the first time - make an appointment through the mobile application of the clinic (download it to your phone or tablet) or call 067 668 0 964, 050 512 8 980.