Endoprosthetics of the aorta
An aortic aneurysm is a deformation of a vessel due to thinning and weakening of vascular tissue, resulting in protrusion of one of the walls. There are also spindle-shaped aneurysms in which the diameter of the artery diffusely expands throughout.
An aortic aneurysm, at any location, is a life-threatening condition in which most patients sooner or later rupture a vessel, leading to extensive internal hemorrhage. The pathology ranks tenth in the list of causes of death in men over 60 years.
If we consider the ratio of aortic aneurysms by their location (localization), the statistics are as follows:
- 37% - abdominal aorta;
- 23% - ascending aorta;
- 19% - aortic arch;
- 19.5% - descending aorta.
During instrumental diagnosis, a combination of the aneurysm with aortic insufficiency and aortic stenosis is often found.
Causes of aortic aneurysm
The causes of aortic aneurysms can be congenital or acquired. Congenital malformations include genetic intrauterine developmental abnormalities. Acquired pathologies are associated with an inflammatory or degenerative (non-inflammatory) process.
In the general list of diseases that lead to the appearance of a vascular defect, the dominant role is given to atherosclerosis, which, for the most part, develops in people with hypertension, poor metabolism, bad habits (smoking, alcohol use).
Arterial pathologies more often occur in areas with intense blood flow (functionally stressed areas). The formation of an aneurysm has an irreversible process, which means that the walls of the vessel gradually weaken and become increasingly deformed. As a result, the blood flow in the area of pathology slows down, only a small amount of blood in the aneurysmal sac enters the distal bed. Thrombotic masses form in the artery cavity, which can clog one of the branches of the aorta and lead to death.
The main diagnostic methods based on which the tactics of treatment are determined are radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography. Differentiation from neoplasms in the lungs and mediastinum, peritoneum, as well as from lymph node lesions. Based on the results of the examination (in case of confirmation of the aneurysm), a decision is made on the possibility of performing endoprosthetics of the aorta.
Treatment of an aortic aneurysm is always surgical. Urgent surgery is indicated for the size of the aneurysm:
- abdominal - diameter more than 4 cm;
- chest - diameter 5.5-6 cm;
- with a progressive increase in the aneurysm by 0.5 cm or more for six months.
In case of rupture of the aneurysm, surgery is vital. Surgical treatment consists of resection of the pathological area of the thoracic or abdominal aorta, suturing of the pathological segment, or replacement of the defective area with a vascular implant. At the expressed aortal insufficiency resection of a thoracic aorta in ascending department is combined with operation on prosthetics of the aortic valve.
Features and benefits of endoprosthetics of the aorta
An alternative to open surgery is endoprosthetics of the aorta with stent implantation. Endovascular surgery is a minimally invasive surgical procedure by a percutaneous puncture.
Inside the vessel, an implant called a stent graft (a mesh metal frame with a polymer fabric inside) is placed with the help of special surgical instruments. The prosthesis is attached to the walls of the aorta, and medical tissue isolates the vascular lumen from communication with the aneurysm cavity. The part of the vessel that was formed by the protrusion of the wall is cut off from the vascular system, which causes the restoration of blood supply to the heart.
Benefits of aortic arthroplasty:
- minimal trauma;
- low risk of recurrence;
- quick recovery (discharge on the 7th day);
- reduced drug load in the postoperative period;
- high efficiency (the percentage of completed operations is over 97%).
In the Dobrobut clinic, most of the operations performed for the aortic aneurysm are performed by the endovascular method. This type of surgery has successfully replaced aneurysm resection and has given hundreds of our patients a quick recovery and full life. In our practice we use:
- innovative equipment for diagnostics and treatment;
- the best stent grafts from foreign leading manufacturers;
- European protocols for treatment and rehabilitation;
- the latest medicines and consumables.
When choosing patients for endoprosthetics of the thoracic or abdominal aorta, we proceed from an assessment of the risks and prospects for recovery. For many patients with severe chronic diseases, this type of innovative surgery is the only possible way to prevent a direct threat to life. The price of aortic arthroplasty depends on the volume and complexity of the surgical intervention, the cost of medicines and materials.
For an emergency call to a team of doctors, call 5288. If you are making an appointment for the first time, make an appointment through the clinic's mobile application (download it to your phone or tablet) or call the contact numbers: 067 668 0 964, 050 512 8 980.